What are the different types of alopecia? What is the mechanism? What are the main treatments? Find in this post the answers to these questions
Alopecia or hair loss
Alopecia is a complex phenomenon that affects mostly men.
Indeed, the male hormones create a disruption at the level of the hair cycle that accelerates the loss of hair (referred to as androgen-gene alopecia).
The cycle of a hair can break down into three steps:
-A growth phase (called "anagen"): it lasts between 3 and 5 years, period in which the hair is growing still. It is estimated that between 80 and 90% of our hair is in phase anagen.
-A phase catagen during which the hair is "between life and death." Its root dates back to the surface (it passes the deep DermIS to the epidermis) and hair stops growing, but it's not going to fall before a replacement. This phase lasts between fifteen and twenty days, it concerns 10-20% of our hair.
-A resting phase (known as telogen) which lasts between 2 and 6 months. This time the hair is indeed dead and ready to fall, but remains still in place while the root of his replacing pushes enough to disengage.
It is estimated that a hair has the ability to perform on average 20 to 25 hair cycles before you can no longer push
In the case of gene androgen alopecia, disruption of production of male hormones and particularly of Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a hormone produced from Testosterone thanks to an enzyme (5 alpha-reductase), has the effect to accelerate the pace of the phase anagen hair follicles, by "forcing" the hair to switch phase telogen, leaving him time to produce a quality keratin.
Clinically, there is a reduction in the density and a miniaturization of hair which is accompanied by increased production of sebum.
Thus hair cycles be connected quickly producing each time a hair still more fragile and shorter than the previous, leading ultimately to the total depletion of hair cycles.
To arrive at this stage, the body produces too much male hormones, either the sensitivity of the follicles to these hormones is too large (e.g. via an increase in the number of receptors for these hormones).
Only the hair of the vertex (the area above the skull) are sensitive to male hormones. Those of the Crown do not have the same hormonal receptors, this is the reason why they never fall.
In humans, there first achieving temporal gulfs and the vertex.
The female when there is diffuse involvement of the scalp, hormonal dysfunction is imperative.
Solutions to combat hair loss
1. Drug treatment
Finasteride (Propecia ®) to reduce the local concentration of DHT. Thanks to this drug, the action of 5 alpha-reductase is "disabled", which allows to slow down hair loss.
Minoxidyl ® is a cream to apply daily and use at the same time than Finasteride. Its mode of action is not yet confirmed, but the main hypothesis suggests that its local vasodilator action allows increased vascularization of the hair and therefore required for growth nutrient.
Women are given certain molecules that have a "antiandrogens" such as Lacyproterone action and Spironolactone.
Food supplements containing a mesomask cocktail are also prescribed in the long course in addition to these drug treatments.
Using a very fine needle, performing hundreds of micro-topping technique, a mixture of polyvitamins possibly contain non reticulated hyaluronic acid.
This technique of aesthetic medicine will have a double effect: the multiple specific will not only stimulate the production of collagen via fibroblasts of the scalp, but they will also bring locally all the nutrients needed for hair growth.
3. Injections of PRP (Platelet Rich Plasma)
A blood test is needed to perform this technique. The collected blood is then centrifuged, they extracted plasma enriched with PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and VEGF (vascular growth factor) to re-inject it locally at the scalp level.
The PRP has effect of developing the vasculature around the follicle, which will extend its growth phase (anagen) and promote the regrowth of a much better quality hair.
4. LED lamps
These lamps stimulate the synthesis of collagen at the scalp level. It is essential for a good cohesion of the skin giving it both hydration, resistance, flexibility and firmness.
Thus, the vascular bed happens much more easily to the follicle, allowing a better oxygen and nutrient intake during the regrowth.
5. Hair transplant
Two methods exist to combat a severe hair loss: the technique of the strips and the EUF.
Both have the advantage of being radical. This is the hair of the corona (Crown), those who "never die", which will be levied to be relocated one by one on the vertex.
The strips method allows to graft a larger amount of hair during the same meeting that the FUE but remains more decaying (even if it is hidden by the hair, a scar persists at the level of the Crown).